Monday, October 13, 2014

Bahrain's New Electoral Districts:
No Help for the Opposition; Bad for Troublesome Sunnis



It's been a while since I've had a chance to write here properly, and if I had more time and resources it would be nice to sustain Stephen Colbert-style coverage of the impending shit-storm that is likely to be Bahrain's November parliamentary elections.  The main headline from today (or yesterday) is the opposition bloc's decision to boycott, yet such a decision was but a formality following, among other things, yet another unilateral redrawing of Bahrain's electoral constituencies announced in late September, ostensibly to make them more "equal in size."   

I will spare readers all the details of the change, a visual depiction of which can be found at Al-Wasat, but the upshot is that the Central Governorate has been dissolved and its constituencies distributed among the remaining four regions: Al-Muharraq, Capital, Northern, and Southern.  The claimed purpose, again, was to "equalize" the constituencies in line with opposition demands, and in accordance with the crown prince's latest dialogue framework announced Sept. 18, one element of which is "[a] commitment to re-defining electoral districts to ensure greater representation and measures to further enhance electoral oversight."

So, then, what is the opposition so upset about?

As with many things, the problem here is the imprecise use of language, or perhaps more accurately the (deliberate) use of imprecise language.  While it is true that the new changes do address differences in size among districts -- the Justice Minister has claimed that now "90% of the districts are approximately equal in size," whatever that means -- it is obvious that this was never the question of primary concern to the opposition.  Rather, the question revolves around the communal representativeness of the districts, which, even in their new iteration, are drawn along sectarian geographical boundaries and thus are almost certain to produce a parliament that is not reflective of Bahrain's national-level demographic and thus political landscape.

This result is evident from the map below, which superimposes Bahrain's 2010 electoral district winners on a sectarian demographic map of the country.



Indeed, the now-dissolved Central Governorate, based around the confessionally-mixed 'Isa Town, was arguably the most diverse of all Bahrain's regions.  Now, its neighborhoods have been divided carefully between the Sunni-dominated Southern Governorate (whose seats increased from 6 to 10), Shi'a-dominated Northern Govenorate (9 to 12), and more mixed Capital Govenorate (8 to 10).  Muharraq retains its original 8 districts; more on this below.  Finally, boundaries in remaining districts have been shifted considerably; more on this later as well.

After studying the changes, al-Wifaq has concluded that its electoral prospects are entirely unchanged: in the latest vote it contested, 2010, it ran candidates in only 18 of 40 districts in recognition that it could not hope to win in the other Sunni-dominated 22.  Last month, 'Ali Salman confirmed that the group's calculations remain the same, saying it is inevitable that 22 seats will be filled by pro-government candidates.

Al-Wifaq does not seem to be the only -- or even primary -- political target of the changes, however. While the group's chances have been neither improved nor harmed, the same cannot be said of troublesome Sunni MPs.  For instance, the outspoken anti-government Osama al-Tamimi, whose business famously was shot up in 2012 after he called for a corruption investigation into the prime minister on the floor of parliament, represented 'Isa Town in the former Central Governorate, and it is unclear how the changes will affect his prospects.  And Wa'ad also traditionally has enjoyed strong support in this mixed Sunni-Shi'i area, Muneera Fakhro nearly winning Wa'ad's only-ever seat here in 2006. (Incidentally, it will be interesting to see how the state reacts to Wa'ad's September reaffirmation of Ebrahim Sharif as Secretary General. The Justice Ministry had threatened the group with dissolution in the case of his re-election.)

The story is similar for Sunni Islamist candidates, which is sure to please not only the U.S. but also the Muslim Brotherhood-hating Saudis.  Although the Islamist stronghold of Muharraq was spared redistricting, it was, on the other hand, the only governorate not to gain seats.  At the same time, Islamist candidates in the South now face greatly-expanded local electorates, as the region takes on additional neighborhoods to correct its especially low elector-to-MP ratio. No longer will candidates be able to depend on localized bases of support in and around Riffa.  Three-term Salafi firebrand Jassim al-Sa'idi, for instance, now faces an uphill battle against fellow MP Khamis al-Rumaihi, the two being forced through the new changes to contest the same seat in the 8th Southern district.

Indeed, the implications for Sunnis are such that even the pro-government (and I would guess Crown Prince-linked) advocacy group Citizens for Bahrain is forced to concede that "it is unclear whether the societies belonging to the Al-Fateh Coalition will succeed in forming a political bloc. The change in constituency boundaries seems to have complicated this process." (For more, see this quite informative district-by-district analysis of the electoral changes.)

On the other hand, pro-government independents, including tribesmen and minority MPs useful in demonstrating Bahrain's commitment to diversity, will continue to do well.  Notwithstanding the government's claim that its motivation for redistricting was to make electoral districts more "equal in size," famed 'first-female-MP-in-the-Gulf' Lateefa Gaood's manufactured 10th district in the barren Southern Governorate desert remains intact, along with all 750 or so of its registered voters. I guess hers is one of the remaining 10% of unequal districts the Justice Minister was talking about.

This conclusion -- that Bahrain's new electoral districts seem aimed at Sunnis as much as at Shi'a -- speaks to a larger truth increasingly evident both in Bahrain as well as around the Gulf and indeed the Middle East generally: growing international (i.e., U.S.) concern over the rise of the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq, and support for it among Gulf populations.  This offers Gulf leaders newfound diplomatic leverage over an American policy often at odds with their own strategic calculations since 2011, and it also relegates further to the back burner intermittent American concern over human rights abuses, lack of reform, and so on. (The implicit threat of gravitation toward Russia and other Asian powers also seems to be a preferred Bahraini tactic these days.)

For now, the U.S. needs redoubled access to strategic military facilities in the region, intelligence gathering and sharing, and commitment by Gulf states to help fight ISIS at home and at least pay lip service to Western-led intervention against it in Iraq and Syria.  On the other hand, one suspects that U.S. policymakers are influenced by an increasingly dampened appetite for political reform that, in the eyes of uninformed State Department officials in Washington, may well pave the way for the empowerment of Islamists more or less sympathetic to ISIS. (See the recent U.S. about-face in Egypt, where Kerry seems to visit now on a weekly basis with nary a mention of the domestic political situation.)

In the case of Bahrain, I am told by a reliable source that the U.S. has now firmly gone over to the British camp of supporting modest, ultimately meaningless political change at the margins. "This is politics," one Bahraini political figure was reportedly told by an American official, with reference to the U.S. need for Bahraini support on ISIS.  Despite apparently intending originally to remain in Bahrain to see through the Crown Prince's newest dialogue initiative and pre-electoral negotiations, it seems that Ambassador Krajeski now will return to Washington before the November vote.  (Now largely a moot point anyway with the opposition boycott.)

Thus, rather than implement the spirit of the five-point reform plan announced by Crown Prince Salman on Sept. 18, which included (admittedly vague) provisions not only on electoral redistricting but also changes in the areas of legislative authority, cabinet formation, the judiciary, and the security sector, instead it seems that Bahrain is faced with yet another fait accompli à la the National Action Charter more than a decade ago: delineation of a comprehensive liberalization strategy cautiously welcomed by the opposition along with the vast majority of society, followed by unilateral execution of selective aspects of the proposed reforms, renewing widespread disillusion and confirming citizens' original suspicions.

Update: Shortly after I posted here, the (I presume) Crown Prince-linked advocacy group Citizens for Bahrain, whose district-by-district analysis of electoral changes I reference above, posted a long response to my article apparently pointing out all its flaws and exhorting me, who is not even allowed to enter Bahrain much less a local stakeholder, to "give the reforms a chance."  While I don't typically engage in these sorts of back-and-forths, I will in this case in the hope that it will help avoid similar confusion and/or deliberate misreading.

The main charge is that I base my analysis on a biased measuring stick, namely the extent to which the reforms will aid al-Wifaq's electoral chances.  In fact, my point was that the opposition's underlying aim in pushing for electoral reforms was to achieve electoral districts that would allow it to compete on a fair footing through elections, i.e. to win seats in parliament in proportion to its relative support among the population.  Yet, before and after the changes, a party with a nominal constituency of at least 50% of voters (to use a  conservative lower bound) chooses voluntarily to forego competition in 22 (55% of) districts for knowledge, not that it will face a difficult electoral competition, but that it has utterly no chance of winning on account of demographic composition.  The upshot is that opposition societies, in agreeing to participate, must accept beforehand that they will always be a minority in parliament irrespective of their actual support in society. 

Citizens for Bahrain extols the reforms as visionary and more "radical" than anyone could have anticipated, and rue the fact that Bahraini elections inevitably turn around sectarian identity.  Yet such is a direct, predictable consequence of the single-member districts employed in the electoral system.  It is well-known that this system -- such as seen in the United States and Britain -- systematically reduces the number of viable political parties, since, unless they have very localized bases of support (the Scottish Nationalist Party in Britain, e.g.) smaller parties simply have no chance of winning.  Consider again the electoral history of Wa'ad, which earned between 5% and 10% of the total vote in 2006 and 2010 yet did not win a single seat.

If the Crown Prince wants to institute truly "radical" electoral reform, then scrap the single-member districts in favor of any number of other electoral systems and rules -- proportional representation, party lists, etc. -- many of which are designed precisely for use in contested environments.  We can agree on one thing, that Bahrain would be far better served if parliament included the spectrum of views represented in society, the most liberal of which today are weeded out by the electoral system itself. Unilaterally redrawing districts in a way designed to favor certain constituencies (independents), harm others (Sunni Islamists), and leave the electoral chances of others largely unchanged (the opposition) is not radical or progressive reform. (And, as it took al-Wifaq only a day to calculate its electoral hopes under the new system, do not pretend that the state did not do the same in redrawing the lines.)

A second point Citizens for Bahrain make is that I chalk up the new changes to some U.S. conspiracy to disenfranchise Sunni Islamists.  Here I think less needs to be said in response since this is a strange reading I assume not shared by many.  I was making two points: 1) as acknowledged by the group itself, it seems clear that one target of the reforms was Sunni Islamist candidates, which is likely to please Saudi Arabia given recent tension over the usually well-represented (in parliament) Muslim Brotherhood in Bahrain, as well as the U.S.; and 2) that by all accounts the United States has resigned itself to the relatively limited electoral reforms in lieu of pushing for something more substantive, partly because they need Saudi and Bahraini support on ISIS. 

Finally, the group notes that Osama al-Tamimi is not running for re-election, which I did not know and which is too bad since he seems like a funny guy. On the other hand, I did not suggest that getting rid of him was the "sole intention" of government in dissolving the Central Governorate; rather, I wrote that "the outspoken anti-government Osama al-Tamimi ... represented 'Isa Town in the former Central Governorate, and it is unclear how the changes will affect his prospects." Misinterpret much?

Update 2: In its latest effort to drum up popular enthusiasm for -- or more likely, given that it writes in English, international appreciation of -- Bahrain's upcoming elections, Citizens Bahrain has published what it calls the "definitive guide" to the parliamentary vote.  Without subscribing to the group's conclusions about the substantive significance of the vote, or about the "appropriateness" of Bahrain's bicameral system in which the unelected Shura Council maintains veto power over legislation, one can nonetheless praise the comprehensiveness of the guide, which breaks down the race in some detail in each of the 40 districts.

Some interesting facts: Bahrain will be without the famed Lateefa al-Gaood, who has apparently tired of representing her non-existent constituents in the South; and Jassim al-Sa'idi has already frightened his opponent, a sitting MP of some renown, into withdrawing.  Finally, al-Asalah has broken ranks with the National Unity Gathering folks, who are on the other hand coordinating with al-Manbar, no doubt renewing speculation about the NUG's links with the Brotherhood in Bahrain.

Finally, if some intrepid individual were to compute the average number of registered voters per governorate, and in Sunni- vs. Shi'i-dominated districts, that would be interesting to see.

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    My name is Mrs Sharon Sim. I live in Singapore and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave me happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of S$250,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a single mother with 3 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of S$250,000.00 SG. Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs Sharon, that refer you to him. contact Dr Purva Pius,via email:(urgentloan22@gmail.com) Thank you.

    BORROWERS APPLICATION DETAILS


    1. Name Of Applicant in Full:……..
    2. Telephone Numbers:……….
    3. Address and Location:…….
    4. Amount in request………..
    5. Repayment Period:………..
    6. Purpose Of Loan………….
    7. country…………………
    8. phone…………………..
    9. occupation………………
    10.age/sex…………………
    11.Monthly Income…………..
    12.Email……………..

    Regards.
    Managements
    Email Kindly Contact: urgentloan22@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete




  21. Are you a business man or woman? Are you in a financial mess or do You need funds to start your own business? Need to pay loans Their Debt or pay off your bills or start a nice business? Do you have a low credit score and you will find it hard to get Capital loan from local banks / other financial institutions? You need one Loan or funding for any reason such as:Email:ramzan_help@hotmail.com

    a) Personal Loan, Business Expansion,
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    We offer loan at low interest rate of 3% and with collateral and not Collateral, we offer personal loans, debt consolidation loans, venture capital Capital, business loan, education loan, mortgage or Loans for any reason".

    However, our method offers the possibility to specify the amount of the loan needed and also the duration you can afford it, gives you a real Chance get the funds you need!

    Contact us via E-mail: ramzan_help@hotmail.com

    ReplyDelete

  22. How I Got My Loan From A Genuine And Reliable Loan Company
    I am Mrs.Rabeca Rajan I live in Singapore I am from India i was in need of a loan of S$100,000 and was scammed by those fraudulent lenders and a friend introduce me to IBRAHIM MUSA,and he lend me the loan without any stress,I made a vow to Myself and God that I will keep sharing my testimony on the internet on how I got my loan. Here its E-mail: powerfinance7@gmail.com
    BORROWERS APPLICATION DETAILS
    1. Your Full names:_______
    2. Contact address:_______
    3. Country Of Residence:______
    4. Loan Amount Required:________
    5. Duration:_____
    6. Gender:_____
    7. Occupation:________
    8. Monthly Income:_______
    9. Date Of Birth:________
    10.Telephone Number:__________

    Email Kindly Contact Him Via: powerfinance7@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  23. Good day,
    Are you in need of urgent loan…Do you want to
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    conditions email os: naomiloancompany@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  24. HELLO we offer loan, international projects and bank guarantee/SBLC financing to individuals and companies around the world. Our interest rate is 3% per year.
    Also sponsor and finance all types of local and international projects. So if you have any good project and need an investor only inform us immediately so that we can discuss, sign agreement then sponsor and fund the project for you.
    Kindly contact us today for all your financial needs.

    Best regards
    Ms. stella peterson
    Email: Guaranteetrustfunding09@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  25. I’m Alice James by name. I live in New York USA, i want to use this medium to alert all loan seekers to be very careful because there are scammers everywhere.Few months ago I was financially strained, and due to my desperation I was scammed by several online lenders. I had almost lost hope until a friend of mine referred me to a very reliable lender called Mrs.Mary Clark who lend me an unsecured loan of $55,000 under 2hours without any stress. If you are in need of any kind of loan just contact him now via: maryclarkservice1@yahoo.com I‘m using this medium to alert all loan seekers because of the hell I passed through in the hands of those fraudulent lenders. And I don’t wish even my enemy to pass through such hell that I passed through in the hands of those fraudulent online lenders,i will also want you to help me pass this information to others who are also in need of a loan once you have also receive your loan from Mrs.Mary Clark, i pray that God should give her long life.

    God bless him forever.

    Alice James

    Testimony on how i got my loan


    ReplyDelete
  26. My life was destroyed when my husband sent me packing, after 13 years we have been together. I was lost and helpless after trying so many ways to my husband back to me. One day at work, I was distracted, not knowing that my boss called me, so he sat and asked me what it was all about, I told him and he smiled and said it was no problem. I never understood what he meant by it was no problem getting back my husband, he said he used a spell to get back his wife when she left him for another man, and now they are together till date and initially I was shocked hearing something from my boss. He gave me an email address of the Prophet abuvia which helped him get his wife back, I never believed that this would work, but I had no choice coming into contact with the sayings that I get done, and he asked for my information and that my husband was able to propose to throw him the spell and I sent him the details, but after two days, my mother called me that my husband was pleading that he wants me back, I never believed, because it was just a dream and I had to rush off to my mother's place and to my greatest surprise, was kneeling my husband beg me for forgiveness that he wants me and the child back home, when I gave prophet abuvia a conversation regarding sudden change of my husband and he made clear to me that my husband will love me until the end of the world, that he will never leave for another woman. Now me and my husband is back together and started doing funny things he has not done before, he makes me happy and do what it is suppose to do as a man without nagging. Please if you need help of any kind need, please contact Abuvia Prophet for help. His email is prophet.abuvia@gmail.com his website is prophetabuviasolutiontemple.webs.com

    ReplyDelete
  27. FOR YOUR REQUIRED QUICK AFFORDABLE LOAN, EMAIL dawsonlewisloancompany@yahoo.com

    Hello, I am Sandra Alice currently living in New jersey city, USA. I am a widow at the moment with two kids and i was stuck in a financial situation in June 2015 and i needed to refinance and pay my bills. I tried seeking loans from various loan firms both private and corporate but never with success, and most banks declined my credit. But as God would have it, I was introduced to a Man of God a private loan lender who gave me a loan of $105,000USD and today am a business owner and my kids are doing well at the moment, if you must contact any firm with reference to securing a loan without collateral , no credit check, no co signer with just 2% interest rate and better repayment plans and schedule, please contact Dawson lewis He doesn’t know that am doing this but am so happy now and i decided to let people know more about him and also i want God to bless him more.You can contact him through his email: (dawsonlewisloancompany@yahoo.com) Or TEL:+14105016847

    dawsonlewisloancompany@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  28. Do you need a loan? Have you been looking for where to get a loan? Have you been trying to get any kind of loan? then apply now at ?(carlosellisonfinance@outlook.com) if you want to get an affordable loan. Loan is offered here at a very low interest rate of 2%. Contact us now if you are interested.
    Do you need a loan? Have you been looking for where to get a loan? Have you been trying to get any kind of loan? then apply now at ?(carlosellisonfinance@outlook.com) if you want to get an affordable loan. Loan is offered here at a very low interest rate of 2%. Contact us now if you are interested.

    ReplyDelete

  29. 1. Full Names:............................
    2. Contact Address:.......................
    3. Loan Amount Needed:....................
    4. Duration of the Loan...................
    5. Direct Telephone Number:.................

    I will be looking forward to hear from you so as to
    proceed.

    ReplyDelete
  30. Are you looking for a real loan at 3%? Kindly reply to this email (fservice_help@live.com) with your full name, amount needed, duration yrs, mobile number.

    ReplyDelete
  31. Welcome to Global credit service:
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    Company Email: globalcreditservice@yahoo.com
    phone number:+13025850513.

    ReplyDelete
  32. “LOVE, Happiness, Trust, is the key to LIFE”. That was the word from Dr happy when I consulted his powerful Love Spell. I married the wrong man; I realized that after Three years of our unfruitful marriage. Everything was going from Best to Worst in our life, no child, I got demoted from work after our marriage, my husband was sacked a year after. His application for new job in various offices was constantly declined even though he was qualified enough. I was made to take care of my family with the low income I earn get that wasn’t enough to pay our rent. We keep praying a seeking for help from some people, my friends laugh at me behind because I was advised not to get married yet.It was one Thursday night that my husband woke me up and told me that has thought enough about our crisis, he said that our crisis is not ordinary and it’s beyond our spiritual level. He suggested we should consult Dr happy from testimonies he showed me online about how he has been helping families. I was afraid, I don’t like evil or spell but I supported him to contact him if he can help us. We consulted him via happylovespell2@gmail.com and he replied positively after 20munites with congratulating email that he can help us but he will need our pure heart and trusts in his work if he will cast the spell on us and purify our life. We agreed to his terms. He cast the spell and told us to expect results within 5days. I waited for three days nothing happened, so I started having doubt and blaming my husband for emailing Dr happy. It was on the fifth day that my husband was called for an interview and he got a well-paying work, I was prompted to a higher position. I missed my period on the 5th day and it was confirmed that I am with a baby. Things have really changed for us for good and we now have our own house and cars. I will never forget what Dr happy told us “LOVE is the key to LIFE”, this word keep me going. People that laughed at us are coming close for help and I am delighted to welcome them because my family is now blessed. Dr happy is a savior and man that keep to his word even when I doubted his powers at the end of the spell. Thank to your Oracle for helping us via happylovespell2@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  33. Do you need a loan to start a business of your own? we give out all kind of loan at a low interest rate of 3%. We give out loan from the minimum of 5,000.00 usd to the maximum 100 million dollars, pounds, euros, If interested, Contact us via email: johnoneil945@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  34. We offer private, commercial and personal loans with very low annual interest rates as low as 2% in one year to 30 years repayment period anywhere in the world. We offer loans ranging from 3,000 to 100,000,000.00 in any currency. Contact us via email. (880skylarge@gmail.com) for more details.

    ReplyDelete
  35. We give out loan at an affordable interest rate

    We are a loan firm that give out loans at an affordale interest rate for all kinds of businesses, mortgages, cars loans, etc. Give us a trial today and you will not regret you did.
    victoriafinanciallink@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  36. Welcome To Dr. Powell Garcia Loan Service…
    Are you a business man or woman? Are you in any financial mess or do you need funds to start up your own business? Do you need a loan to start a nice Small Scale and medium business? Do you have a low credit score and you are finding it hard to obtain capital loan from local banks and other financial institutes? Our loans are well insured for maximum security is our priority, Our leading goal is to help you get the services you deserve.

    Our loans Are well insured for maximum security is our priority, Our leading goal is to help you get the service you deserve, Our program is the quickest way to get what you need in a snap. Reduce your payments to ease the strain on your monthly expenses. Gain flexibility with which you can use for any purpose – from vacations, to education, to unique purchases

    We offer a wide range of financial services which includes: Business Planning, Commercial and Development Finance, Properties and Mortgages, Debt Consolidation Loans, Business Loans, Private loans,car loans, hotel loans, student loans, personal loans Home Refinancing Loans with low interest rate @2% per annul for individuals, companies and corporate bodies. Get the best for your family and own your dream home as well with our General Loan scheme.

    Interested applicants should Contact us via email: (dr.powellgarcialoans@gmail.com)

    ReplyDelete
  37. How My Life Was Transform by Mr Martinez Lexie

    My Name is Nicole Marie from Ohio, United State and life is worth living comfortably for me and my family now and i really have never seen goodness shown to me this much in my life, As i am a struggling mum with two kids and i have been going through a serious problem as my husband encountered a terrible accident last two weeks, and the doctors stated that he needs to undergo a delicate surgery for him to be able to walk again and i could not afford the bills for his surgery then i went to the bank for a loan and they turn me down stating that i have no credit card, from there i ran to my father and he was not able to help me, then when i was browsing through yahoo answers i came across a God fearing man (Mr Martinez Lexie) who provides loans at an affordable interest rate and i have been hearing about so many scams on the Internet mostly Africa, but at this my desperate situation, i had no choice than to give it an attempt due to the fact that the company is from United State of America, and surprisingly it was all like a dream, i received a loan of $82,000.00 USD and i payed for my husband surgery and thank GOD today he is ok and can walk, my family is happy and i said to myself that i will shout to the world the wonders this great and God fearing Man Mr Martinez Lexie did for me and my family; so if anyone is in genuine and serious need of a loan do contact this GOD fearing man via Email: ( Lexieloancompany@yahoo.com ) or through the Company website: http://lexieloans.bravesites.com OR text: +18168926958 thanks




    ReplyDelete
  38. Do you need an urgent loan? Do you need the loan to finance a project? Housing, Education, Real Estate, Purchasing of Instruments etc? do you have bad credit record? Merrill Lynch Loan Firm can assist you with an urgent loan with 3% interest rate. All you need to do is send your application to our email address waizlenders@aol.com

    ReplyDelete
  39. Get BLANK ATM Programmed Card and cash money directly in any ATM Machine around you. There is no risk of being caught, because the card has been programmed in such a way that it's not traceable, it also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV to detect you and you can only withdraw a total amount of $5,000.00 USD in a day. Now email us today at our E-mail address at: Atmcardcashmachine@hotmail.com and get your card today and live that luxury life you every dream to live.

    ReplyDelete
  40. Welcome To Dr. Powell Garcia Loan Service…
    Are you a business man or woman? Are you in any financial mess or do you need funds to start up your own business? Do you need a loan to start a nice Small Scale and medium business? Do you have a low credit score and you are finding it hard to obtain capital loan from local banks and other financial institutes? Our loans are well insured for maximum security is our priority, Our leading goal is to help you get the services you deserve.

    Our loans Are well insured for maximum security is our priority, Our leading goal is to help you get the service you deserve, Our program is the quickest way to get what you need in a snap. Reduce your payments to ease the strain on your monthly expenses. Gain flexibility with which you can use for any purpose – from vacations, to education, to unique purchases

    We offer a wide range of financial services which includes: Business Planning, Commercial and Development Finance, Properties and Mortgages, Debt Consolidation Loans, Business Loans, Private loans,car loans, hotel loans, student loans, personal loans Home Refinancing Loans with low interest rate @2% per annul for individuals, companies and corporate bodies. Get the best for your family and own your dream home as well with our General Loan scheme.

    Interested applicants should Contact us via email: (dr.powellgarcialoans@gmail.com)

    ReplyDelete
  41. FOR YOUR REQUIRED QUICK AFFORDABLE LOAN, EMAIL dawsonlewisloancompany@yahoo.com

    Hello, I am Sandra Alice currently living in New jersey city, USA. I am a widow at the moment with two kids and i was stuck in a financial situation in June 2015 and i needed to refinance and pay my bills. I tried seeking loans from various loan firms both private and corporate but never with success, and most banks declined my credit. But as God would have it, I was introduced to a Man of God a private loan lender who gave me a loan of $105,000USD and today am a business owner and my kids are doing well at the moment, if you must contact any firm with reference to securing a loan without collateral , no credit check, no co signer with just 2% interest rate and better repayment plans and schedule, please contact Dawson lewis He doesn’t know that am doing this but am so happy now and i decided to let people know more about him and also i want God to bless him more.You can contact him through his email: (dawsonlewisloancompany@yahoo.com) Or TEL:+14105016847

    dawsonlewisloancompany@yahoo.com

    ReplyDelete
  42. How i got my Desired Loan Amount from a Reliable Loan Company (Alexloancompany@yahoo.com)

    Good day everybody am Ketesha Frank By name am from the United State Of America i want to give thanks and a great appreciation to Mr Adolf Alex Loan Company for offering me loan for purchasing my house with a low interest rate. I want to give thanks to him for giving me this loan. My friends out there who needs loan for different purposes i advice you contact Mr Adolf Alex Loan Company for loan instead of falling in to hands of Scammers online. Am happy today because of Mr Adolf Alex Loan Company. So if you want to contact them for a loan you contact them on: ( Alexloancompany@yahoo.com)or Text: +1 571-322-5806

    ReplyDelete
  43. How i got my Desired Loan Amount from a Reliable Loan Company (Alexloancompany@yahoo.com)

    Hello everyone, My name is Ketesha Frank, I am from the Alabama, United State, am here to testify of how i got my loan from Mr Adolf Alex Loan Company{ (Alexloancompany@yahoo.com) } after i applied Two times from various loan lenders who claimed to be lenders right here this forum, i thought their lending was real and i applied but they never gave me loan until a friend of mine introduce me to Mr Adolf Alex Loan Company, who promised to help me with a loan of my desire and he really did as he promised without any form of delay, I had doubts but i never seize to believe. I never thought there are still reliable loan lenders until i met Mr Adolf Alex, who really helped me with my loan and changed my life for the better. I know there are still many good lenders out there but i would advise you to try Mr Adolf Alex Loan Company, his caring and understanding. don't know if you are in need of an urgent loan also or want funding for your projects, So feel free to contact Mr Adolf Alex Loan Company his email address is ( Alexloancompany@yahoo.com) or Text: +1 571-322-5806

    ReplyDelete


  44. How i got my Desired Loan Amount from a Reliable Loan Company (sammyloancompany@yahoo.com)

    Hello everyone, My name is julien garcia, I am from texas, United State, am here to testify of how i got my loan from Mr sammy Loan Company{ (sammyloancompany@yahoo.com) } after i applied Two times from various loan lenders who claimed to be lenders right here this forum, i thought their lending was real and i applied but they never gave me loan until a friend of mine introduce me to Mr sammy johnson Loan Company, who promised to help me with a loan of my desire and he really did as he promised without any form of delay, I had doubts but i never seize to believe. I never thought there are still reliable loan lenders until i met Mr sammy johnson, who really helped me with my loan and changed my life for the better. I know there are still many good lenders out there but i would advise you to try Mr sammy Loan Company, his caring and understanding. don't know if you are in need of an urgent loan also or want funding for your projects, So feel free to contact Mr sammyLoan Company his email address is[sammyloancompany@yahoo.com]

    ReplyDelete
  45. We offer a wide range of financial services 3% which includes: Business Planning, Commercial and Development Finance, Properties and Mortgages, Debt Consolidation cash, Business cash, Private cash,car cash, hotel cash, student cash Contact us via email: musaddiqloanlending@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete